Know more about Congenital Heart Defect

Congenital heart defect is a problem with the structure of the heart, which is present at birth. The defect involves the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart and the arteries and veins near the heart. They disrupt the normal flow of blood through the heart and the blood flow slows down, go in the wrong direction or gets blocked.

Symptoms:

Some congenital heart defects have no symptoms. For some people, symptoms occur later in life and can return years after the treatment.

  • Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • A bluish tint to the skin, lips and fingernails (cyanosis)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiring quickly upon exertion
  • Swelling of body tissue or organs (edema)

Causes:

Congenital heart disease occurs as a result of an early developmental problem in the heart’s structure. The defect typically interferes with the normal flow of blood through the heart, which affects breathing. Some of the causes include the following:

  • Hereditary heart defect
  • Taking certain medications, or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
  • Increased blood sugar levels, such as diabetes, affects fetal development

Types:

  • Heart valve defects
  • Problems with the heart’s walls
  • Issues with the heart’s muscle
  • Bad connections among blood vessels

Diagnosis:

Doctors may find some problems before a baby is born and some other heart related problems are found in infants, kids, or adults. The doctor listens to the heartbeat to check if they can hear an unusual sound or heart murmur, they may order several tests to diagnose. 

  • ECG
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Chest X-ray
  • 2D Echocardiogram
  • Electrocardiogram
  • MRI

Treatment:

  • Medication
  • Implantable Heart Devices
  • Catheter Procedures
  • Open-Heart Surgery
  • Heart Transplant

Dr Ravikiran Muddada
MD, DM (Cardiology)
Consultant Interventional Cardiologist
OMNI Hospitals, Visakhapatnam

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