Cholecystectomy, in simple words is the process of surgically removing the gallbladder from the human body. Gall bladder is a pear-shaped organ that is located in the top right side of the belly, close below the liver. Bile, a digestive fluid created in the liver, is collected and stored in the gallbladder. Gallbladder sometimes becomes mandatory to be removed surgically in case of its inflammation or in the case of stone formation.
How is it Performed
The doctor performs cholecystectomy with the help of a laparoscope. The most typical way to execute a cholecystectomy is by creating four tiny incisions, implanting a tiny video camera, and using specialized surgical equipment to view into the belly to eventually remove the gallbladder. Hence the name Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
In some instances, based upon the severity of the case, the doctor might follow a slightly different procedure, where the gallbladder may be removed with a single, substantial incision. This procedure is known as an open cholecystectomy.
Why is it Performed
The most frequent reason for a cholecystectomy is to treat gallstones and the difficulties they bring on. A cholecystectomy may be advised by the doctor if one has:
Preparation For Surgery
Generally the patient is advised not to consume any food or beverages for at least 4 hours prior to the surgery.
Inform the assigned doctor about any current medications and pre existing medical conditions, if any. Depending upon the condition the doctor might alter or may suggest to stop some medicines as it may trigger heavy bleeding post surgery.
During The Surgical Procedure
Initially the patient won’t be conscious throughout a cholecystectomy since general anesthetic is used to conduct the surgery. The patient receives anesthesia through a vein in the arm. The medical team will put a tube through the patient’s neck to assist him/her breathe once the medications start working. The cholecystectomy is subsequently carried out by the doctor, either by a laparoscopic or open operation depending upon the severity of the case.
Later, either of the two surgical procedures are performed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy or Open cholecystectomy.
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy – This is the method which is minimally invasive where a tiny camera is inserted through four micro incisions in the abdomen. While viewing the scenario of the abdomen the doctor then inserts the surgical tools through other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
If your surgeon suspects gallstones or other issues with the bile duct, patient may then next go through an imaging test like an X-ray or ultrasound. The patient is then brought to a recovery area once the incisions have been sutured. In one to two hours, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed.
For certain individuals, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not recommended. In rare circumstances, the surgeon may start with a laparoscopic technique and end up needing to create a bigger incision due to problems or scar tissue from prior surgeries.
Open Cholecystectomy – This is also known as the old traditional way of performing the surgery by large open incision for removal of the gallbladder. A 6-inch (15-centimeter) incision is made behind the right ribcage in the abdomen during an open cholecystectomy. The liver and gallbladder are made visible by pulling aside the muscle and tissue. The gallbladder is subsequently removed by the designated surgeon. The patient is transferred to a recovery area once the incision is stitched up.
It takes one to two hours to do an open cholecystectomy.
Gallstones can cause pain and suffering, and may frequently reoccur despite conservative therapies including dietary changes which is now eased after undergoing a cholecystectomy. A cholecystectomy will typically stop gallstones from recurring.
Depending on the technique the surgeon chooses and the general health of the patient, the length of time it takes to resume all regular activities following a cholecystectomy will vary.
For instance, after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, most patients may be able to resume their jobs within a few days. Meanwhile, one week or more may pass before an open cholecystectomy patient is well enough to go back to work.