Everything you need to know about Neurological disorders


The human brain is quite extraordinary. Its astounding functions, which are composed of very intricate systems, have even surprised scientists and doctors. However, this intricate organ is as prone as any other organ to damage, and various factors can lead to disruptions in its normal functioning. Neurological disorders, a broad category encompassing a range of conditions, pose significant challenges to individuals and the healthcare community.  The phrase “neurological diseases” refers to a wide spectrum of illnesses affecting the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, together known as the nervous system. 

What is a Neurological Disorder?

Neurological disorders in the medical field can arise in response to infections, resulting in diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, and other nerves in the human body. These diseases occur due to alterations in the chemistry, structure, or function of the nervous system. Differences in the structure, chemistry, or electrical behaviour of the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can cause several symptoms. Examples of such neurological disorders include brain tumours, cerebral palsy, autism, and epilepsy, among many others. Some brain disorders are congenital, and consequently, they develop before birth. Another group of disorders includes malformations, wounds, infections, and anatomical flaws. Every neurological disease, regardless of its development, is a result of damage to the nervous system.

These diseases may be accompanied by a variety of symptoms, including cognitive, motor, sensory, and other disturbances. Some symptoms are pain, motor paralysis, muscular weakness, loss of sensation, problems with coordination and balance, convulsion, and disorientation.

Causes of Neurological Disorders

A neurological disorder’s particular cause may vary based on the condition, although some common contributing variables and causes are as follows:

  • Genetic Factors: Certain neurological conditions are inherited and arise from certain genetic mutations or variances. Conditions like Muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s disease and certain types of epilepsy have a strong genetic component.
  • Infections: The nervous system can get infected with a variety of pathogens, including bacteria (meningitis), viruses (herpes simplex, HIV), and parasites (Lyme disease). Diseases such as meningitis and encephalitis fall into this category.
  • Trauma: Head injuries and trauma can result in neurological disorders, ranging from concussions to more severe conditions like traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to toxins, chemicals, and pollutants can contribute to the development of neurological disorders. Prolonged exposure to certain substances may lead to conditions like neuropathy.
  • Autoimmune Disorders: The body’s own tissues, particularly those in the nervous system, can occasionally be unintentionally attacked by the immune system. The central nervous system can be affected by autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
  • Degenerative Diseases: A number of neurological conditions are characterised by the slow deterioration of nerve tissues or cells. A few instances include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Metabolic Disorders: Metabolic imbalances cause some neurological diseases. Enzyme shortages or problems with other metabolic processes might be the cause of these disorders. 
  • Congenital Abnormalities: Some neurological conditions arise from anomalies in the nervous system’s development and are present from birth. This group includes diseases like cerebral palsy and neural tube abnormalities.
  • Hormonal Imbalances: The neurological system can be impacted by hormonal imbalances, such as those caused by thyroid conditions, which can result in symptoms including tremors and muscular weakness.

Neurological Symptoms

The following five neurological symptoms should never be ignored, even if you are not familiar with the signs of neurological illnesses: 

  • Pain: Pain is among the most prevalent signs and symptoms of neurological disorders. Different types of pain, such as in the back, neck, muscles, and joints, may be experienced by patients. Neurological problems include chronic headaches as well.  
  • Memory Problems: A developing neurological condition like agnosia may be indicated by difficulty memorising information due to a lack of concentrating strength. People who have problems focusing on what is being said may also have difficulty understanding and retaining information, which might lead to forgetting it later. 
  • Numbness: Another neurological sign is numbness, which is the lack of feeling, either totally or partially. People may not experience vibration, touch, pain, or warmth in such circumstances.
  • Partial or Total Visual Loss: Partial or total blindness may result from injury to the occipital lobe of the brain, which regulates vision. Double vision, photophobia (sensitivity to strong light), and fuzzy or cloudy vision are examples of symptoms associated with neurological visual impairment. 
  • Sleep disturbances: Neurological disorders might also present with symptoms such as problems with sleeping. Sleep disorders that are widespread and can have a substantial influence on health include insomnia and hypersomnia.

Common Neurological Disorders

There are many different types of neurological diseases, ranging from minor, reversible issues like signs of nerve weakening to serious conditions requiring constant or urgent medical treatment. Common neurological conditions include:


Headaches, though common, can be debilitating for some individuals. Migraines and tension-type headaches are among the most prevalent types. Even though there are many different types of headaches, tension-type headaches, migraines, and cluster headaches are the most common. Tension type headaches are commonly caused by stress or muscular tension, resulting in a band-like sensation surrounding the head. A migraine usually affects one side of the head and is defined by severe, throbbing pain. 

Treatment – Given the large range of treatments available, a precise diagnosis is crucial for headaches. Prescription drugs or other specialist treatment approaches may be necessary for certain individuals, while over-the-counter pain medicines may provide relief for others.

Epilepsy and Seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterised by recurrent, unexpected seizures. Medication to stop seizures is usually the first line of treatment. However, some individuals may not respond well to these medications. It could be required in certain situations to pursue alternate treatments as directed by the doctor. 

Treatment – Surgical treatments and specialist treatment, such as nerve stimulation, may be beneficial for those with drug-resistant epilepsy. The goal of these therapies is to better manage seizures and improve the quality of life for epileptics.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative condition that advances gradually over time. It is typified by a slow decline in memory that becomes worse with time and has a big influence on behaviour and day-to-day functioning. For many people, there may be obvious gastrointestinal problems that exacerbate nerve pain and make everyday living more difficult. Alzheimer’s disease can harm and ultimately lead to the death of brain cells, which causes the volume of the brain to shrink.

Treatment – As of now, Alzheimer’s disease has no known cure. However, according to the Alzheimer’s Association, aducanumab, also known as Aduhelm, shows a promising potential to slow the loss of brain function in individuals with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative neurological condition that mostly impairs mobility. It specifically targets dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra area of the brain. Tremors, stiffness, and decreased movement are some of the symptoms that become more noticeable when dopamine levels drop. Parkinson’s disease is thought to be caused by a confluence of genetic abnormalities and environmental exposures, while the precise origin of the condition is yet unclear.

Treatment – As of right now, PD has no known remedy. To manage symptoms and preserve a person’s quality of life, therapies are suggested. A person’s quality of life can be enhanced by supportive therapy, deep brain stimulation, and medication in managing Parkinson’s disease symptoms.


An interruption in the blood flow to the brain causes strokes. Ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes are the two main groups into which they fall. An artery blockage causes an ischemic stroke, which is the result of a portion of the brain being deprived of oxygen and nourishment. When a blood artery in the brain bursts, bleeding occurs within the brain tissue, causing hemorrhagic strokes. 

Treatment – Rehab following a stroke is essential to recovery regardless of the kind of stroke. Patients who have had a stroke can adapt to new difficulties and regain abilities thanks to rehabilitation. For stroke survivors, receiving thorough care and prompt treatment are essential to achieving better results.


Conditions that impact both the central and peripheral nervous systems are known as neurological diseases. These systems consist of the spinal cord, brain, and the nerves that branch off into the rest of the body. Disorders of the neurological system might be difficult to treat if the doctor is not treating them. At Omni Hospitals, we are aware of the terrible impacts that neurological conditions may have on patients and their families. Our doctors provide all patients with personalised treatment plans, and all-round care to help them get rid of the ailment and recover quickly.