Department of

Gastroenterology - Bariatric Surgery

Department of

Gastroenterology - Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric Surgery

The primary goals of Bariatric surgery are to reduce food consumption by  intestinal and stomach absorption of nutrients. This is done by undergoing a surgery that helps change or limit the general form of digestive process so that food is not absorbed and broken down as usual. Patients can lose weight and lower their risk of obesity-related health hazards or diseases by consuming less calories and nutrients.

Who Should Undergo The Surgery? 

In order to identify degrees of obesity and evaluate whether bariatric intervention is necessary, the body mass index (BMI), a measurement of height in proportion to weight, is utilized.

You would need to undergo bariatric surgery if,

  1. You have a BMI of 40 or above (extreme obesity).
  2. You have a major body fat related health issue, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or chronic sleep apnea, and your BMI anywhere between 35 and 39.9 (obesity). If your BMI is between 30 and 34 and you have major weight-related health issues, you could be eligible for some forms of weight-loss surgery.

Types Of Bariatric Surgery  

There are basically 4 forms of bariatric surgeries which are as follows…

1.Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (roo-en-wy).RYGB

The most popular technique for gastric bypass is this process. Usually, this operation cannot be reversed. It functions by limiting the quantity of food you can eat at one time and lowering nutritional absorption.

Your stomach’s top is separated from the rest of it by an incision made by the surgeon. Only approximately an ounce of food may fit in the resultant pouch, which is roughly the size of a walnut. Your stomach can typically store three quarts of food. The small intestine is then partially sliced and sewn onto the pouch by the surgeon. Food reaches the middle portion of the small intestine without passing through much of your stomach or the initial part of your small intestine.

2.Vertical Gastric Sleeve Surgery (VSG)

With a sleeve gastrectomy, approximately 80% of the stomach is removed, leaving a protracted pouch that resembles a tube. There is less room for food in this smaller stomach. Additionally, it generates less ghrelin, a hormone that controls appetite, which may reduce your urge to eat. This treatment has benefits including considerable weight reduction and no gut rerouting. Additionally, compared to most other surgeries, a sleeve gastrectomy needs a shorter hospital stay.

3.Biliopancreatic Diversion with a Duodenal Switch (BPD-DS) –

In Duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion. the first stage of this two-part treatment, a sleeve gastrectomy-like technique is carried out. Bypassing the bulk of the intestine, the second procedure (duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion) connects the terminal section of the intestine to the duodenum close to the stomach.

This procedure both restricts how much you may consume and decreases nutritional absorption. Although it is quite successful, there are more risks associated with it, such as starvation and vitamin deficiencies.

4.Adjustable Gastric Banding (AGB)

This is done through a process called Laparoscopy. A flexible band is wrapped around the top of the stomach by the surgeon. This results in a tiny stomach pouch. This implies that you’ll feel satisfied after consuming less food, aiding in weight loss.

Adjusting the band is possible. This is accomplished by changing the amount of fluid in a balloon around the band. This is accomplished through  a port inserted beneath the skin of your belly. Once the surgery is completed, a needle will be inserted into the port by the physician through the patient’s skin. The port is injected with fluid. The liquid enters the balloon through the tube, wraps around the band, and compresses the top of the stomach. At each clinic visit, a little quantity of fluid is often added while your weight reduction will be monitored.

Post Surgery 

After the completion of bariatric surgery, the patient will be kept only on a liquid diet for a few days until the digestive system, stomach and the small intestines can heal. Then moves on to extremely soft, pureed meals, and finally, ordinary foods. How much and what you can eat and drink may be subject to a variety of limitations or restrictions.

In the initial months following weight-loss surgery, patients will have to undergo routine medical examinations to track their health. The patient has to make sure to maintain a healthy lifestyle post surgery for consistency in good health.


Excessive weight/fat leads to many ailments which are inter related hence post surgery multiple results can be seen as the outcome of weight reduction. The patient is seen to recover from many underlying issues by time. The most common one’s are as follows

  • Heart problems
  • Abnormal / Elevated blood pressure
  • Diabetes type 2
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, often known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease                                         (NAFLD) (NASH)
  • Disease of the gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)

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