Department of


Kidney Stones

A kidney stone is a result of solute and solvent mixture. If lesser fluids are consumed which is the solvent, than the food with high protein or high oxalate which is the solute; than it leads to precipitating renal stones. Kidney stones can be composed of calcium, uric acid, struvite or cystine. They originate in the kidney but can also develop in the ureter, bladder or urethra. Kidney stones are detected by performing an ultrasound scan on the patient.

Kidney stones occur due to known aetiology. If the aetiology is taken care of, then the stones do not reoccur. Aetiology can be as simple as a person not consuming enough fluids while working in the heat. If a person takes care of such of avoiding the aetiology, he/she may not suffer from reoccurring stones. However, in some patients, stones may keep reoccurring due to abnormal tracts. Kidney transplant if detected early, has a good prognosis without any damage to the kidney.

Symptoms of kidney stones

  • Frequent urination especially at night
  • Recurrent abdominal pain with high severity
  • Change in colour of urine
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Chills

Treatment of kidney stones

If the patient is predisposed to kidney stones, they are advised to consume 3 to 5 litres of water, avoid high protein diet, rough meat meaning fibrous meat, high oxalate foodstuff like cake, coffee, etc. Other treatment options are:

  • Lithotripsy: An ultrasound sound wave is projected on the stones to break it into small pieces which can be easily passed out through urine.
  • PCNL(Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy): When the stone is very large to be passed through urine, it is removed through a small incision in the back.
  • Ureteroscopy: If a stone is stuck in a ureter, a small wire-like tool called ureteroscope is used to remove it.