Department of

Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Hysterectomy

Department of

Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Hysterectomy


The surgical removal of the uterus and, likely, the cervix is known as a hysterectomy. A hysterectomy may involve the removal of nearby organs and tissues, including the ovaries and fallopian tubes, depending on the purpose for the operation. Throughout pregnancy, a baby develops in the uterus. The blood you lose during your menstrual cycle makes up its lining. After a hysterectomy, you wouldn’t get pregnant and you stop getting your period.

Types of  Hysterectomy:

  1. Total hysterectomy – The uterus and cervix are removed, but the ovaries remain.
  2. Supracervical hysterectomy – Removal of only the upper section of the uterus, leaving the cervix intact.
  3. Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy  – This procedure involves the removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), and ovaries (oophorectomy). If you haven’t gone through menopause yet, removing the ovaries will trigger menopausal symptoms.
  4. Radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy – The uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, the upper region of the vagina, and some surrounding tissue and lymph nodes are removed during a radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. When malignancy is present, this type of hysterectomy is performed.

What is the purpose of a Hysterectomy?

Hysterectomies are performed to treat:

  • Vaginal bleeding that is abnormal or excessive and is not controlled by other therapeutic options.
  • Severe menstrual discomfort that is not managed by usual treatment techniques
  • Uterine fibroids or leiomyomas (noncancerous tumors).
  • Increased uterine pain that is not managed by other treatments.
  • Uterine prolapse (the uterus “dropping” into the vaginal canal as a result of weakening support muscles) can cause urine incontinence or bowel obstruction.
  • Cervical or uterine cancer or anomalies that may develop to cancer in order to avoid cancer.
  • Conditions affecting the uterine lining, such as hyperplasia, recurring uterine polyps, or adenomyosis.

What takes place during a Hysterectomy?

Your doctor will determine the type of hysterectomy you require and the best surgical way to execute it. You will be dressed in a hospital gown and linked up to sensors that will track your heart rate. To deliver drugs and fluids, an intravenous (IV) line is inserted into a vein in your arm.

An anaesthesiologist will either give you:

General anaesthesia, in which you will be completely unconscious during the treatment; or Regional anaesthesia (also known as epidural or spinal anaesthesia), in which drugs are administered near the nerves in your lower back to “block” pain while you remain awake.

Your healthcare professional may utilise one of several surgical methods to execute a hysterectomy:

Vaginal Hysterectomy

  • Vaginal hysterectomy is the removal of your uterus through an incision at the top of your vagina. There is no visible incision.
  • Inside the vagina, dissolvable sutures are used.
  • Most typically used to treat uterine prolapse and other benign (or noncancerous) disorders.
  • It has the fewest difficulties and the quickest recovery time (up to four weeks) and is regarded as the recommended method.
  • Patients are frequently discharged the same day of surgery.

Hysterectomy through Laparoscopy:

  • Through a small incision at the belly button, a laparoscope (a thin tube with a video camera on the end) is inserted into the lower abdomen.
  • Several other minor incisions are used to implant surgical tools.
  • Your uterus can be removed in little sections by abdominal incisions or vaginal incisions.
  • Some people leave the hospital the same day or after only one night.
  • The recovery period is shorter and less painful than that of an abdominal hysterectomy.

Abdominal Hysterectomy  :

  • A six- to eight-inch incision in your abdomen is used to remove your uterus.
  • The incision is made across the top of your public hairline or from your belly button to your pubic bone. The wound will be closed with stitches or staples by the surgeon.
  • When cancer is involved, the uterus is enlarged, or disease spreads to other pelvic areas, in cases like these- Abdominal Hysterectomy is employed.
  • It usually necessitates a lengthier hospital stay (two or three days) as well as a longer healing period.

What are the most prevalent hysterectomy side effects?

Vaginal leakage (which can occur up to six weeks after surgery) and discomfort at the incision sites are two of the most prevalent side effects of a hysterectomy.

You may suffer menopausal symptoms if your ovaries were removed after your hysterectomy.

Some common side effects include:

  1. Flashes of heat.
  2. Dryness around Vulva.
  3. Libido decline.
  4. Sleeping problems (insomnia).
  5. Your doctor will go over treatment choices with you in order to avoid the aforementioned menopausal side effects.

What happens following a hysterectomy??

The duration you spend in the hospital after a hysterectomy depends on the type of surgery you have. Your doctor will want to keep an eye on you to make sure there are no signs of complications like blood clots or bleeding. To prevent blood clots in your legs, you’ll walk around as soon as feasible after surgery.

If you underwent an abdominal hysterectomy, you could be hospitalised for a few days. Vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies are less intrusive and usually do not necessitate an overnight hospital stay.

Your healthcare professional will go over recovery guidelines with you, including limitations on your daily activities. Discuss any worries you may have concerning your operation.

What are the risks of Hysterectomy?

There is always the possibility of complications with any procedure. Problems could include:

  • Clots of blood form.
  • Infection is severe.
  • Bleeding.
  • Bowel obstruction.
  • Internal stitches have been ripped.
  • Urinary tract damage.
  • Anaesthesia related issues.

How long does recovery from a Hysterectomy take?

Most women recover after hysterectomy within four to six weeks. Your recovery will be affected by the type of hysterectomy you had and how it was performed. It takes less time to heal after a vaginal or laparoscopic hysterectomy than it does from an abdominal hysterectomy.

You should gradually increase your activities and pay attention to how you feel. If anything gives you pain, you should quit doing it. Discuss detailed instructions for healing at home with your healthcare professional, including which drugs to take.

How will I feel following a Hysterectomy?


Your periods will end after a hysterectomy. You may occasionally feel bloated and experience symptoms comparable to menstruation. Light vaginal bleeding or a dark brown discharge is usual for four to six weeks after surgery.

You may experience discomfort at the incision site for four to six weeks, and any redness, bruising, or swelling will go away. It is typical to experience burning or itching around the incision. You may also feel numbness around the incision and down your leg. This is normal and often lasts around two months. Scarring, both internally and outwardly, is typical.

If the ovaries are still there, you should not suffer any hormonal effects. If the ovaries were removed along with the uterus prior to menopause, you may suffer menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. To alleviate menopausal symptoms, your doctor may recommend hormone replacement treatment.

People who have a subtotal hysterectomy may experience a light period for up to a year after the procedure. Because little portions of endometrial lining can stay in the cervix, light periods occur.


Emotional reactions to a hysterectomy differ depending on how well you were prepared for the surgery, the purpose for having it, and whether or not the problem has been addressed.

Some women may experience grief, but these feelings are usually fleeting. Other women may discover that a hysterectomy improves their health and well-being and can even save their lives.

Will I go through menopause after having a Hysterectomy?

This is dependent on whether or not the ovaries were removed. If your ovaries survive a hysterectomy, you will not enter menopause immediately. If both of your ovaries were removed after your hysterectomy, you could go into menopause right away.

Is a Pap test still required if I have undergone a Hysterectomy?

No, especially if you are thought to be at low risk of developing cervical cancer. If you have a hysterectomy due to cancer, you should continue to receive Pap tests.

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